Ribosomes act as important translators of proteins and important participants in gene expression. It has been indicated that ribosome heterogeneity is related to the regulation of the expression of distinct genes. Creative Biolabs offers advanced technologies to help researchers to investigate the differences among ribosome structures and functions and find the novel molecular basis that could explain gene expression.
The ribosome is made up of core and substoichiometric ribosomal proteins (RPs). The heterogeneity of ribosomes is characterized by the heterogeneous composition and amount of core and substoichiometric RPs.
Fig.1 Five outstanding questions on the nature of ribosome heterogeneity and its function. (Genuth, 2018)
Distinct types of cells or even within a single cell may have different structures of ribosomes. The composition of the ribosome is surprisingly not only heterogeneous but also dynamic. The alterations of ribosomal composition may occur during different stimulations. The causes of ribosome heterogeneity include cellular stress, activation of specific signaling pathways, and cell cycle progression. The conformation of the ribosome at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is tailored to enhance the translation of luminal, membrane, or secretory proteins. The specialized ribosomes presenting at synapses in neurons are involved in enhancing the translation efficiency of co-localized synaptic mRNAs.
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The abundance and dynamics of those modifications on ribosomes, corresponding ribosomal functions, and even their interactions need to be further explored. Creative Biolabs offers advanced ribosome-related technologies especially in the aspect of proteomics to discover the molecular mechanisms of ribosome heterogeneity. Global clients could utilize our professional services to explore the distinctions between ribosomes and ribosome-mediated gene regulation.
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